They lower the voltage from generator level to the voltage level of the internal plant. Potential transformers consist of two separate windings on a common magnetic steel core. There are three main types of voltage transformers. As the ratio moves from a larger number on the left to a smaller. Transformers can also be used for isolation, where the voltage in equals the voltage out, with separate coils not electrically bonded to one another. Lv transformer electrical substation consists, therefore, of the set of devices dedicated to the transformation of the voltage supplied by the distribution network at medium voltage e. Pts potential transformers 5 potential transformers pts pts step down high voltages to the voltage needed by the meter usually 120v occasionally 67v.
The voltage transformer is designed to connect in parallel with the line to transform the line voltage to 115 or 120 volts suitable for the meter or relay. Electrical substations can also be divided into public and. Ceiunel current transformer rated insulation level of up to 36 kv. Majorly these are classified into outdoor and indoor potential transformers. Loading considerations when paralleling transformers it can be seen by using equations 1 and 2 below, that if the percent impedances in each transformer are the same, as shown in figure 1, that there will be equal current division and load sharing on each transformer. This transformer step down the voltage to a safe limit value which can be easily measured by the ordinary low voltage instrument like a voltmeter, wattmeter and watthour meters, etc. Current transformers perform the following functions. What is the difference between voltage transformer and. Current transformers,voltage transformers and instrument. American national standard for instrument transformers for. Both units are available in single, double, and tapped secondary designs with two accuracy and thermal rating options. Khan is the ceo of the organization under whose headship we have emerged as one of the trusted instrument transformers suppliers. The true ratio expressed in rated primary voltage of a potential ciated. This is step up transformer because when we step up, the voltage increases and current decrease.
Voltage transformers voltage transformers are connected across the points at which the voltage to be measured. Voltage transformers are much like small power transformers, differing only in details of design that control ratio accuracy over the specified range of output. Mica insulated transformers can have considerably higher power factors, especially if they have been in a high humidity area and deenergized. Basics, maintenance, and diagnostics vii contents continued page 4. Voltage transformer or potential transformer theory. Read through the different types we supply below and use our instrument transformer rfq form to request a specific part to meet your requirements. A general overview of abbs current and voltage transformers. Thepoten tialcircuitofthewattmetermaynowbeusedasavoltmeterto. Sf6 insulated combined instrument transformers are used to convert high transmission line. The potential transformers and accessories covered by this specification shall comply with the. Dec 30, 2018 potential transformer or voltage transformer gets used in electrical power system for stepping down the system voltage to a safe value which can be fed to low ratings meters and relays. Current transformers reduce high voltage currents to a much lower value and provide a convenient way of safely monitoring the.
In general, a voltage transformer is used to deliver power. A voltage transformer has 1500 turns of wire on its primary coil and 500 turns of wire for its secondary coil. Gs transformers is an electrical transformer manufacturer in singapore specialising in low voltage isolation transformers and autotransformers ptp series three phase potential transformers electrical transformers gs transformers. Nov 15, 2019 the basic principle of the current transformer is the same as that of the power transformer. Whenever an alternating current flows through the primary winding, alternating magnetic flux is produced, which then induces alternating current in the. Ac voltage can be transformed to another voltage of the same frequency using a transformer. Like the power transformer, the current transformer also contains a primary and a secondary winding. Loading considerations when paralleling transformers. Potential transformers used primarily in a step down environment to monitor voltage. Current transformer white paper the basics of current transformers ratio the ct ratio is the ratio of primary current input to secondary current output at full load. A potential transformer is a conventional transformer having primary and secondary windings. A transformer has no moving parts and is a completely.
Transformers transformers on the electrical grid lets look at the electricity that comes to your home. The performance characteristics asso percent ratio. One winding consists of fewer turns of heavier wire on the steel core. A softironcore transformer is very useful where the transformer must be physically small, yet efficient. The process control is very stringent to give the customer a trustworthy product with. The basics of current transformers nk technologies. Assume idea operation of both cts and pts potential transformer schematic symbol schematic symbols should indicate polarity mark can. Current and voltage instrument transformers applicaton guide for current transformers, the value of the reactance x is determined in a special way so that it represents the leakage flux. We will also provide different specifications on request. Abstractthis paper discusses the factors to consider for sizing current transformers cts for line protection applications. Instrument transformers are high accuracy class electrical devices used to isolate or transform voltage or current levels. To solve the part b we use the power of electric current.
The ratio of the voltage on the coils is the same as a ratio of their turns. National electrical manufacturers association approved november 6, 2007 american national standards institute, inc. These transformers reduce the voltage and current from high value to the low value which can be measured by conventional instruments. Difference between current transformer and voltage. The electromagnetic potential transformer is a wirewound transformer. Current transformer vs voltage transformer potential transformer a transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another using electromagnetic induction through inductively coupled conductors, also called the transformer s coils. Potential transformers are also commonly known as voltage transformers. A current flowing in the primary coil generates a timevarying magnetic field in the core. Main insulation is provided by world class insulating paper, ehv grade oil and good ms metal tanks are used along with type tested porcelain. The flux flows in the part of the core represented by the lefthand exciting branch of the equivalent circuit shown in figure 1. Current transformers have their primary windings connected in series with the power circuit, and so also in series with the system impedance. Types of transformers also include power transformers, current transformers, isolation transformers, stepupstepdown transformers, flyback transformers, instrument transformers, current sensing transformers, autotransformers, switch mode power supply transformers, printed circuit board pcb assemblies transformers and ferrite transformers. Difference between current transformer and potential. A transformer can have zero voltage regulation at a leading power factor b lagging power factor c unity power factor d zero power factor ans.
Sadtems range is comprehensive, incorporating both indoor and outdoor models. Power transformers transformers siemens united kingdom. The high voltage lines can be as high 155,000 to 765,000 volts to travel many hundreds of miles. The emergency rating of potential transformers is defined at one minute of operation, thus enough time for protective equipment to operate. Our voltage and current transformers are designed with a single winding or multiple secondary windings and with the option of primary voltage or current regulation. These transformers are an environmentally friendly, safe and extremely reliable solution, which has. A current transformer is a device which produces an alternating current in its secondary which is proportional to the alternating current in its primary. Our company, sct p limited was established in the year 1979. Used in ac system for the measurement of current, voltage, power and energy. The capacitor voltage transformer cvt uses a capacitance potential divider and is used at higher voltages due to a lower cost than an electromagnetic pt. A transformer is an electrical apparatus designed to convert alternating current from one voltage to another.
Current transformers cts are instrument transformers that are used to supply a reduced value of current to me ters, protective relays, and other instruments. Potential transformers pts pts step down high voltages to the voltage needed by the meter usually 120v occasionally 67v. A secondary shortcircuit will cause the unit to overheat and fail in a very short period of time. Their role in electrical systems is of primary importance as they are a means of stepping down the current or voltage of a system to measurable values, such as 5a or 1a in the case of a current transformers or 110v or 100v in the case of a voltage transformer. The essentials of current transformers in power circuits. Unit auxiliary transformers provide the auxiliary power supply for an entire power plant. Ironcore transformers are usually used when the source frequency is low below 20 khz.
A current transformer is an instrument transformer, used along with measuring or protective devices, in which the secondary current is proportional to the primary current under normal conditions of operation and differs from it by an angle that is approximately zero. Instrument transformers are used for measurement and protective application, together with equipment such as meters and relays. Table 1 standard burdens for potential transformers burden voltamps at 120v burden power factor w 12. Potential transformer sale, potential transformers on sale. Acalibrationservicefor voltagetransformersand highvoltagecapacitors williame. C electrical power from one voltage to another voltage keeping the frequency same by electromagnetic induction discover the worlds research 17. In highhumidity areas where the transformer is offline, initial power factors of up to 20% can be measured. The viz75 and viz11 indoor voltage transformers are designed for service in metalclad switchgear and are used for metering, relaying, or control power. They come in many shapes and sizes for different applications they work exactly as you would expect them to.
A ct has large number of turns on its secondary winding, but very few turns on its primary winding. The reliability and security of trench gasinsulated instrument transformers is based on over 50. Siemens delivers unit auxiliary transformers as packages with low clarification efforts for the customer. Since the invention of the first constant potential transformer in 1885, transformers have become essential for the transmission, distribution, and utilization of alternating current electric power. In an ideal transformer, the power on the primary coil is equal to the power on the secondary coil. Current transformers ct and potential transformers pt are used to measure the current and voltage in a circuit of the order of hundreds of amperes and volts respectively. Transformers used for voltage potential measurement steps down the voltage to the level of voltmeter. The institute of electrical and electronic engineers defines a current transformer ieee std c57. Commercially available relays and meters used for protection and metering, are designed for low voltage. Current and voltage instrument transformers technical. The primary coil is connected to an ac voltage source.
Protection of single pole insulated voltage transformers against feroresonance phenomena is stated in appendix 3. For use in outdoor installations from 11kv to 33kv class. Never shortcircuit the secondary terminal of a voltage transformer even this is not in use. The potential transformer is mainly classified into two types, i. Instrument transformer theory and testing steve hudson, pe engineering manager 10737 lexington drive. Oil filled potential transformers voltage transformers. It can be designed to step up or step down voltages and works on the magnetic induction principle. Whats the type of current and potential transformers. They come in various power ratings expressed in va. American national standard for instrument transformers for revenue metering 10kv bil through 350 kv bil 0. Current transformer basics and the current transformer. The instrument transformers like voltage transformer and current transformer are used for connecting the electrical instruments to the measuring instruments. To start with, both are instrument transformers basically used for measurement and protection purpose in power systems. Types of instrument transformer instrument transformer has two type 1 current transformer 2 potential transformer 5 6.
Instrument transformer basic technical information and. A potential transformer must be capable of operating at 110% above rating voltage continuously provided the secondary burden in volt amperes at this voltage does not exceed the thermal rating. Electric appliances such as washing machines and dishwashers use voltages of 110240 volts, but electronic devices laptop. Sadtems indoor range of potential transformers is divided into three main design types. Polarity refers to the instantaneous direction of the primary current with respect to the secondary current and is determined by the way the transformer leads are brought out of the case. The transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. Sf6 insulated combined instrument transformers trench group. A potential transformer is used to provide a signal voltage to a meter or protective relay. Ptp series three phase potential transformers electrical. Potential transformers iop995 electrical 24 jul 04.
Finds a wide application in protection circuits of power system ex. Sizing current transformers for line protection applications. Altuve, normann fischer, gabriel benmouyal, and dale finney, schweitzer engineering laboratories, inc. The potential transformer may be defined as an instrument transformer used for the transformation of voltage from a higher value to the lower value. Potential transformer pt definition the potential transformer may be defined as an instrument transformer used for the transformation of voltage from a higher value to the lower value. There are three primary types of potential transformers pt. A calibration service for voltage transformers and high. Instrument transformers application guide abb group. What will be the turns ratio tr of the transformer.
Helical coils can be used on a low voltage side of high kva transformers b high frequency transformers c high voltage side of small capacity transformers. The core and coil assembly is encased in a plastic enclosure and vacuum encapsulated in polyurethane resin. An optical voltage transformer exploits the faraday effect, rotating polarized light, in optical materials. Current and voltage potential instrument transformers. Jun 01, 2015 types of voltage or potential transformers. These potential transformers are used in power metering applications and allow you to monitor electrical power systems. A potential transformer is typically expressed in primary to secondary voltage ratio. Potential transformers almost always have a primary to secondary voltage ratio to step down a higher voltage to 120 vac. Osborne transformers potential transformers offer a safe and reliable means to reduce system voltages to instrumentation and protection scheme levels. When electricity moves from a power plant it is put into a very high voltage to be able to travel long distances.509 603 88 346 574 597 260 428 507 179 17 701 880 1321 856 1000 411 1035 20 460 1427 559 1301 354 986 534 597 946 1167 998 540 203 1256 537